What is Inventory? Formula + Accounting Calculator

In accounting, the term “Inventory” describes a wide array of materials used in the production of goods, as well as the finished goods waiting to be sold. Inventory refers to the raw materials used by a company to produce goods, unfinished work-in-process (WIP) goods, and finished goods available for sale. Katana offers a 14-day free trial, so you can see firsthand how to calculate average inventory without stress. For average inventory example, if your company’s beginning inventory for January is $10,000 and the ending inventory for January is $15,000, the average inventory for January would be $12,500. But the ideal ratio will depend on the industry and the type of business. For example, companies selling perishable goods will need to turn over inventory much more quickly than those selling items with a long shelf life.

how to calculate merchandise inventory ending

Inventory, which is the ending inventory for the period of the balance sheet, is found in the assets section under current assets. Understating ending inventory leads to overstated costs of goods sold. This will lead to an understatement of the net income, assets, and equity. Add the cost of your most recent inventory purchases to the cost of goods sold before your earlier purchases, then add that figure to your ending inventory.

Ending Inventory Formula

You can do it on a spreadsheet or have your tax professional help you. Your beginning inventory this year must be exactly the same as your ending inventory last year. If the two amounts don’t match, you will need to submit an explanation on your tax form for the difference.

An ending inventory is a monetary value used to describe the total worth of a warehouse or storage of goods after a certain number of those goods have been sold. The following formula can be used to calculate https://kelleysbookkeeping.com/ the ending inventory value. The total cost of goods sold for May would be $233,800 (59,000 + 174,800). Specific identification will tell you exactly which purchase to use when determining cost.

How to Calculate the Cost of Goods

In each of these valuation methods, the sum of COGS and ending inventory remains the same. However, the portion of the total value allocated to each category changes based on the method chosen. Therefore, the method chosen to value how to calculate merchandise inventory ending inventory and COGS will directly impact profit on the income statement as well as common financial ratios derived from the balance sheet. When calculating the Cost of Goods Sold for a sale, you must IGNORE the selling price.

  • Beginning merchandise inventory had a balance of $3,150 before adjustment.
  • When inventory is sold, its cost is then treated as an expense and is added to the company’s cost of goods sold (COGS) for the period.
  • “From opening a second retail location to manufacturing your own product line, lenders need an accurate portrayal of your business,” explains Jara.
  • An ending inventory is a monetary value used to describe the total worth of a warehouse or storage of goods after a certain number of those goods have been sold.
  • There’s not much sense in investing $10,000 into new stock if you have $7,500 worth of unsold inventory.
  • WAC is the simplest way to value ending inventory, and it makes the most sense to use when all products sold are identical.

Subtracting this ending inventory from the $16,155 total of goods available for sale leaves $7,200 in cost of goods sold this period. Although this equation is described as a calculation of inventory purchases, it would be more accurate to call it a calculation of inventory used. Some of the items included in the equation weren’t actually purchased during the accounting period you’re considering.

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For worthless inventory, you must provide evidence that it was destroyed. For obsolete (out of date) inventory, you must also show evidence of the decrease in value. To use the inventory cost method, you will need to find the value of your inventory. The IRS allows several different methods (FIFO or LIFO, for example), depending on the type of inventory. The IRS has detailed rules for which identification method you can use and when you can make changes to your inventory cost method. You most likely will need a tax professional to calculate COGS for your business income tax return.

Companies can also compare their calculated ending inventory value with actual physical inventory to identify potential problems, such as inventory shrinkage. Once you’ve calculated your business’s ending inventory, you can use that information in many ways. Here are just some of the things brands can do after they’ve calculated ending inventory for a given period. Since each product cost is treated as equivalent and the costs are “spread out” equally in even amounts, the date of purchase or production is ignored.

Ending inventory includes the final value of the inventory you have on hand at the end of an accounting period, after the total purchase of inventory and items sold within that time period are calculated. A given accounting period’s beginning inventory is calculated from the previous period’s ending inventory. Beginning balance is calculated from the previous reporting period’s ending balance.

Beginning inventory is monetary values that a company assigns to their current inventory. This total will equal the ending inventory of the previous accounting period. Sarah, a recent MBA graduate, just received her first real job since graduating from business school. She got a job at a manufacturing company called ACME Lumber Yard, where they sell timber to various real estate development firms. Her first assignment is to calculate the ending inventory for all the lumber that is in stock. Ending inventory is the value of goods available for sale at the end of the accounting period.

At the close of each accounting period, ending inventory is recorded as a current asset on a business’s balance sheet. Because it is inventory that is viable to be sold, it belongs on the “asset” side of the balance sheet, rather than liabilities. It can help you forecast future inventory needs and decide safety stock levels. When calculating average inventory, be sure to use consistent methods and timeframes to compare results. Otherwise, you may not get an accurate picture of your company’s inventory levels. Calculate the cost of goods sold dollar value for the period for each of the following cost allocation methods, using periodic inventory updating.

how to calculate merchandise inventory ending