COST ACCOUNTING-Process costing-definition, specific objectives,types of process costing, principles

This loss is set of against abnormal effectives by debiting the account. The balance of this account, i.e., abnormal gain is transferred to costing profit and loss account. Credit is given to the process account for sale value less the cost after split off point. Hence, when there are inventories of WIP, unit cost cannot be obtained by simply dividing the total cost by the number of units processed. Units in WIP must be converted to a base which can be equated with completed production. For this reason, the amount standing at the credit of abnormal gain account will not be transferred to profit and loss account as it is.

The cost and accounting records of such joint product is kept under process costing, because these joint products are also sold at a profitable margin in the market. (xi) The concept of equivalent production is also considered What Is Process Costing? What It Is & Why Its Important under process costing. It means that when some units are in semi-finished stage, these are to be expressed in terms of equivalent completed units or effective units. (ix) There may occur abnormal loss and abnormal gain.

Process Costing vs. Job Costing

Tracking inventory can be a cumbersome task for very large corporations. This process can be simplified, however, through the implementation of a process costing system. The main benefit of Process Costing is that it provides information that can be used to make critical business decisions. For example, managers using this system can assess profit margin by product and isolate problem products before they become major issues.

On the other hand, job costing is used for unique or custom-made products, such as custom-designed wedding dresses. Once the individual items have been identified and analyzed, one must convert them into equivalent units to calculate the applicable costs per unit. After the period, incomplete units (work in progress) are stated in comparable production units. This adds a subjective component to the analysis of costs in science.


Process costing helps businesses make informed pricing decisions by providing an accurate estimate of the cost of production. This information helps determine the selling price of the product, which is essential for profitability. Process costing is relatively easy to understand compared to other cost accounting methods.

Take your business to the next level with Deltek ComputerEase, the industry-leading job cost accounting software for construction. Record-keeping for process costing is an efficient activity. The details on the terms used and the accounting treatment of WIP and other concepts are found in our article on “process accounts for a single product-with work in progress (WIP)”.

Process Costing Definition

The joint products cannot be identified as separate products up to a certain stage in manufacturing. Costs incurred prior to this stage are joint costs, and costs thereafter are called subsequent costs. The cost before the separation stage has to be distributed to each product. (ii) Standard cost method – A standard cost is fixed on the basis of technical assessment for each by-product and credit is given to the process account on this basis. Because of the stability of this method, effective control would be exercised on the cost of the main product. By-products may require further processing after being separated from the main products.

What Is Process Costing? What It Is & Why Its Important

Costs incurred in the earlier process are transferred to the subsequent process along with the output. The average costs of homogeneous products can easily be computed. Control over cost and production can be advantageously effected as pre-determined and actual data are available for each department or process.

First-in First-out costing

As such, when the homogeneous products are produced through continuous process, a process costing system is usually appropriate. The records are maintained in process wise as the number of units produced, the total costs incurred and the cost per unit. A method of cost accounting whereby costs are charged to processes or operations and averaged over units produced. If there is the scrap value of the units lost, such value is credited to an abnormal loss account, and the balance remaining after that in that account is written off to the costing profit and loss account.

It also works on your mobile, so you can track projects on the go—no matter where or when—and stay up-to-date. We’ve built the best easy to use time tracking software for individuals and teams. Xvii) Each process is treated as a separate cost centre. Ix) Occurrence of process losses e.g., evaporation, shrinkage, chemical reaction etc. Emphasis is placed on production for a given period, which may be a day or a week of a month. Costs are calculated at the end of period under each process.